High courts are the highest appellate jurisdiction and are situated in India’s state and union territory. The High Court has the power to conclude the severest punishment of all cases of contempt by any institution or person. Only Supreme Court has the power to challenge the result of the High Court. Judge of the High Courts in India known as Chief Justice. Every High Court in India has its Chief Justice. For example, Ritu Raj Awasthi is the Chief Justice of Karnataka High Court under Karnataka jurisdiction. Prakash Shrivastava is the Chief Justice of Calcutta high court of Andaman, and Nicobar Island, West Bengal jurisdiction.
Indian High Court Act, 1861:
The concept of the High Court in India was established due to an act known as the Indian high court’s act 1861. Full stop this act was implemented by the parliament of the United Kingdom to create High Courts in the Indian colony. This step was the turning point for the origin of the modern Indian high court’s full staff Queen Victoria permit to create Calcutta, Madrasa and Bombay High Court in 1862 by letters patent after the Independence Indian constitution was established by new High Courts and the Supreme Court. Calcutta High Court is the oldest among the 25 high court’s assets is the first High Court in India. 25 is the number of total high court in India.
|List of High Courts in India|
|Name||Year Estd.||Territorial Jurisdiction||Seat|
|Kolkata High Court||1862||West Bengal, Andman & Nicobar Islands||Kolkata ( Bench of port Blair)|
|Bombay High Court||1862||Maharastra, Dadar, & Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman Diu||Mumbai (Bench at Panaji, Aurangabad and Nagpur)|
|Chennai High Court||1862||Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry||Chennai (Bench at Madurai)|
|Allahabad High Court||1866||Utter Pradesh||Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)|
|Karnataka High Court||1884||Karnataka||Bengaluru (Bench at Dharwad and Gulbarga)|
|Patna High Court||1916||Bihar||Patna|
|Jammu & Kashmir High Court
||1928||Jammu & Kashmir||Sri Nagar & Jammu|
|Punjab & Haryana High Court
||1947||Punjab, Haryana , Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|Guwahati High Court
||1948||Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh||Guwahati (Bench at Kohima, Aizawl and Itanagar)|
|Orissa High Court
|Rajasthan High Court
||1949||Rajasthan||Jodhpur ( Bench – Jaipur)|
|Madhya Pradesh High Court
||1956||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur (Bench –Indore , Gwalior)|
|Kerala High Court
||1958||Kerala & Lakshadweep||Ernakulam|
|Gujarat High Court
|Delhi High Court||1966||Delhi||Delhi|
|Himachal Pradesh High Court
|Sikkim High Court
|Chhattisgarh High Court
|Uttarakhand High Court
|Jharkhand High Court
|Tripura High Court
|Manipur High Court
|Meghalaya High Court
|Andhra Pradesh High Court
|Telangana High Court
The journey of the Indian High Courts:
Now, the question is, how many high courts are there in India? People often ask about how many high courts are there in India currently. Generally, each state has only one high court, but according to the Indian constitution article 231, one high court can include more than two states under it. Out of 25 high courts of India Seven, high courts were established before the Independence. High Court of Kolkata, Bombay, Chennai, Allahabad, Karnataka, Patna, and Jammu Kashmir was is establish between 1862 to 1928. Other high courts were introduced after Independence.
At first, Calcutta High Court was known as the high court of judicature at Fort William. Also, the Madras High Court in Chennai Bombay High Court in Mumbai Allahabad High Court in Allahabad other oldest High Courts in India. Between 1862 to 1866, these 4 High courts were established. The Calcutta High Court, Bombay High Court and Madras High Court are known as the three Chartered High Courts in India. The first journal in India dedicated to reporting judgments of a Court was published from Madras High Court, known as the Madras Law Journal, in 1891. Telangana High Court and Andhra Pradesh high court are at the newest High Court of India, and both the high courts were established in 2019. Allahabad High Court is the biggest High Court in India. No matter how many high court in India are present in 2022, Goa, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland still do not have their own High Court.
Chief Justice of the High Court:
Not every year can have the opportunity to become the Chief Justice of the High Court. The person should be a citizen of India and have working experience in one or more Indian high courts for at least ten years in subordinate courts of India. Appointment of Chief justice of High Court Judges controlled by the president of India Chief Justice of India and Governor of the particular state. Chief Justice of India means the judge of the Supreme Court. Other judges of the High Court are appointed by the president, Governor and the high court’s chief justice. That is why the resignation of the high court’s chief justice and other judges only be accepted by the President of India. Chief Justice of High Court and 280000 rupees per month and other judges get the salary of almost 250000 rupees per month. The retirement age of Chief Justice of High Court is 60 years, but in 1963 according to the 15th amendment of the constitution, the age of retirement was raised to 62.
Power of High Court: Let’s have a quick look at the power of the High Court:
- High Court fan superintendent over all other subordinate court and tribunals better related by the territory with the high court.
- Any case could be transferred to the supreme court only if the high court granted the permission. Otherwise, the decision of the Chief Justice of the High Court will be the final decision. Everyone in the ministry of the particular state or states has to follow the decision given by the High Court.
- The High Court can appoint judges and members of state judicial services and district judges. The appointment posting promotions are also controlled by both the High Court and the state governor.
- High Court can control additional and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters conferred by the Letters of Patent, Criminal Procedure, and Codes of Civil.
High courts of India maintain the proper establishment of the Indian Constitution, the building of Bombay High Court and Punjab Haryana high court part of the UNESCO World Heritage site.